Ningbo, also known as Yong, is located halfway down the coastline of the Chinese mainland and to the south of the Yangtze River Delta. It is bordered by the natural bulwark of the Zhoushan Archipelago to the east, the city of Shaoxing to the west, the city of Shanghai to the north across the Hangzhou Bay, and the city of Taizhou and Sanmen Bay to the south.
The city's history can be traced back to the Hemudu Culture that originated 7,000 years ago. In the Xia and Shang Dynasties about 4,000 years ago, Ningbo was known as Yin. Later, in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), it became part of the State of Yue. In the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC), it encompassed Yin, Mao and Gouzhang, three areas under the Kuaiji Shire. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), it was named Mingzhou. In 821 AD, the local authority moved towards the junction of three local rivers and built city walls, marking the establishment of today's city. In 1381 AD, the city acquired its current name of Ningbo, or, literally, Calm Waves.
There are six districts under Ningbo's jurisdiction: Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, Beilun, Yinzhou and Fenghua; two county-level cities: Yuyao and Cixi; and two counties: Ninghai and Xiangshan. The city covers 9,816km2 on land (including 3,730km2 of urban area) and 8,355.8km2 at sea. As of the end of 2019, the city had a population of 8.5 million.
Located in the subtropical monsoon region, Ningbo has a mild, humid climate. Within the city, the weather varies from place to place due to differences in landscape and environment. The average temperature is around 16.4°C, with highs of 28°C in July and lows of 4.7°C in January.
In 2019 Ningbo's GDP stood at 1.1985 trillion yuan, surpassing the trillion-yuan mark. Its economy in 2019 grew by 6.8% year-on-year and was the 12th-largest in China, moving forward three places compared to the year before. Per capita GDP of 2019 was 143,157 yuan (or $20,752, based on average yearly currency exchange rates). Fiscal revenue in 2019 was 278.49 billion yuan, of which general budgetary fiscal revenue accounted for 146.85 billion yuan, up by 6.4% year-on-year.